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PhD Projects in Image processing – A guide for developing research problem

It is not that we use technology. We live technology!

The process of analysing and manipulating an image to improve its quality is called image processing. Thef image input is processed through a processed signal, and the output may be an image that has better quality. Image processing is rapidly growing with its technologies, and the field of study is opening broader prospects for the researchers to study in Computer Science. The area explores core research areas within engineering and computer science discipline too. 

There are two types of method for image processing :

  • Digital image processing
  • Analogue image processing

The image processing involves three steps where the first one is of importing the image, the second is to analyse and manipulate it, and the third is the output of the manipulation where the report is altered as per the processed image. Digital techniques are pre-processing, image and display enhancement, and information extraction. 

Due to the growth in the field of image processing, it is a broad field for the research scholars to explore. However, the problem is to develop a problem for the research first. To establish a research problem, the researcher has to analyse the research area first. Without a broad area in mind to study, the research will only be struggling with the field topic. The scholar can go nowhere with ‘image processing’ in his brain. He has to develop a broad area of the field. 

There are multiple areas in the field to explore, for example, image segmentation, Medical classification and detection, Image Enhancement. While looking at the numerous areas in the field to explore, the exposure is huge in medical classification and detection. The researcher has to use the correct algorithm to come to a research area to examine. Also, a significant research problem could be medical image compression. 

After coming to a final area of the field to explore, analyse on various techniques and algorithm to conduct the research. A researcher has to have a broad idea of all the steps of researching before even conducting it, because what if the research gets stuck in the middle of the process? Thence, analyse all the areas of your consideration to be confident of your decision. Evaluate the results obtained by previous scholars and the drawbacks of their researches. Haven’t we all heard, somebody’s weakness could be another’s strength? Make use of those drawbacks to bring them out as the research problem of your research. 

Once you identify the multiple problems in those researches, you think of how your research will make a difference in the field and how you will conduct the research to prove your hypothesis. Formulate the solution and a way to solve it with a novel approach. Tah Dah! Your research problem is developed for you to conduct the research. 

Phd projects in cloud computing – Using AWS or Cloudism

With artificial intelligence and the internet of things playing a stellar role in the market of technology, means that humans will be able to interact intelligently with every device through the internet. Howsoever, these devices will store data for the users and there comes a huge need for storage space. A local server will store the data and provide you with the data in your local region, but cloud computing allows you to store the data and access it from anywhere around the globe. 

Cloud computing is an Information Technology shift, enabling you to store your data virtually. Virtualization is the major technology that works with cloud computing. The term ‘cloud’ is used because the saved information has no physical presence and it is in a shape of a cloud for the users. The word is used as a metaphor for the internet to denote a network on telephony schematics. For users to use the data at remote locations, Dynamic virtual machines are created to provide access to actual infrastructure for them.  

Cloud computing, has a broad scope for the PhD candidates in the field of electronics, in various sub-areas, including resource allocation, cloud data security, job scheduling, etc. The question of the protection of the data on the cloud has been a prominent question, ever since people has started to store data on it. Recently, the researchers have come up with the encrypted code as a solution to the breach of data, yet there is still scope for the scholars to research on the issue of security. Also, there are dynamic resource allocation schemes for the PhD candidates to study on the topic. 

To research the field of cloud computing, one has to narrow down the research area from the areas mentioned above initially. You can not take the topic of security and conduct research on it; you have to narrow down the matter of security to ‘secure cloud architecture’, ‘cloud cryptography’, ‘access control and key management’, and various other security management problems of this virtual computing. Narrowing down the topic will help the researcher set an aim and objective to conduct the research.

Once the area of the research has been narrowed down from a broader field to a more taper area, the researcher shall review the recent researches on the topic to find the issue in the area. Reviewing the literature review will give the researcher with a list of drawbacks in the area as he considers all the researches in the field. Analysing the drawbacks and issues in the existing literature will not solve the problem of the topic, the literature will also provide you with a scope of researching the topic you have chosen and are going forward with. Define the algorithm or technique by which you aim to resolve the issue and build a better cloud computing structure. 

For a real-time application, the researcher can employ AWS (Amazon Web Services), where various objectives can be catered like resource allocation, data security can be modelled. A real-time application is an application programme that functions within the current time frame, and with AWS the users can buy space on the cloud to develop applications. However, for prototype modelling, the same can be used in cloudsim simulator and dedicating a certain number of virtual machines over which the data can be carried out. Using AWS or cloudsim is based on the application the person is using.

PhD research topics in vlsi design – Important points to take into consideration

The process of creating an integrated circuit by combining a wide range of transistors into a single microchip for the better performance of complex and communicational transistors. The primary example of a VLSI device is a microprocessor. With the scope of VLSI in the technical field, a researcher has a lot to explore and fill the gaps in its existing literature. While doing research, every scholar has to keep in consideration a few points while deciding the topic for the research; similarly whether technical or theoretical, your research-oriented topic should be chosen with a few points in mind: 

  • Analyse the recent trends in VLSI design process.

A researcher will not benefit from prior studies as much as the recent trends will benefit them. With the current trends, the researcher will be aware of the contemporary as well as the previous researches and literature. Analysing the topic by recent trends will help the scholar find the result through the people of this age, who will understand the topic and the essence of it. 

  • Formulate a research objective by considering the existing problems in the literature of the field. 

The research objective will help the researcher develop the scope of the research, which is to be conducted. Considering the problems in the existing literature will help fill the void in the literature by finding the gap and filling it through the research. With the objective, the scholar will know what he has to find in the research and will provide the hypothesis according to it. 

  • Formulate a topic concerning the objective and finalise the technique to realise the objective.

After the formulation of the topic, the PhD candidate should jump on to the next thing of considering to make a topic out of it. When the researcher knows the aim and objective of the research, formulating a research topic will be easy for him as he will know what is the topic to be understood. However, the researcher should make sure that there is enough literature to study on the topic. Neither the literature should be broad nor should it be narrow for the researcher to struggle with it. 

  • Employ/design novel algorithms or techniques that can realise the objective and overcome the identified drawbacks. 

The PhD scholar should design or employ novel and unique algorithms or techniques to overcome the identified drawbacks of literature and achieve the formulated objective. Algorithms like, genetic algorithm and local minimisation algorithm should be used to fill the gap in the literature. 

  • How is this research going to benefit?

Considering the scope of the research will help you attain filling the gap in the existing study, but the researcher must be confident about how this research is going to benefit the academic strata. The research should be of utmost advantage to the people of the field for them to carry forward research out of it or use the benefit of the findings in their research. 

Considering a few points while determining the PhD research topic in VLSI design will help the research a great deal to be confident about the research he is going to conduct. While there are a number of other things to consider while choosing, begin with these to go forth.

PhD Help in VLSI – Developing a PhD project in Low Power VLSI

Beginning in the 1970s, Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI), was used when communication technologies were being developed. VLSI is a process of creating an integrated circuit to help deal with the complex semiconductors and generate a microchip performing advanced functions of a primary transistor. With the small transistors, the developers saw the difficulties and complexities, thus bringing up the possibility of constructing advanced circuits. Howsoever, low power VLSI came to rescue for the complex circuits consuming large supply of power. 

With overall supply voltage lowered, the power loss of the circuits can be reduced to a large extent. Another reason to scale down the power is the voltage restriction. At a low power supply, a low voltage is preferable to maintain the balance in performance without compromising the frequency or the speed. Low power VLSI has emerged as an important research area because of the research scope it offers to the researchers. Researchers have a wide array of limitations and advancements to work on and improve the efficiency. 

However, how to develop a PhD project in low power VLSI? For finalising a research topic in low power VLSI, formulate an objective to consider. A researcher can choose the objectives like leakage power reduction, reducing dynamic power dissipation, glitch reduction, path delay optimisation. While power dissipation can be in divided into three categories : 

  • Dynamic power consumption
  • Short circuit current
  • Leakage current

A researcher has to study the literature on the basis of the objective formulated by him. Going through the literature of the formulated objective will help the researcher build research problem and know how to fill the existing gap of the literature. The scholar should analyse various recent researches to develop a framework of what has been performed recently in the field of low power VLSI. Once the objective and research problem is formulated, it gives a clear mindset to the PhD scholar to define a scope of the research and continue with it. The extent of the gap will help the researcher to overcome the issue.

Draw upon an algorithm to reduce the existing problem in current researches and to enhance the result. The conventional algorithms to minimise the issues are the genetic algorithm, local minimisation algorithm. An algorithm or technique is used to reduce the complexity, and maintain regularity in the functioning of the process. The low power design technique provides partitioning and power down system with logical style circuit and energy recovery, and threshold reduction technology.  The researcher should incorporate different objectives together and identify techniques for finalising the research scope. Once the proposed scheme of research is implemented, then compare the same with related recent researches and validate the proposed approach. There are various evaluation parameters to evaluate the studies and compare them; however, the comparison will lead the scholar to a better thesis. The research should be concluded by stating the effectiveness of proposed theme. 

The proposed theme and the research will undoubtedly be effective for the academic strata of the field to observe the results and findings of the research and use it to carry forward their research. 

PhD Proposal in IOT

Broadly speaking, the term ‘Internet of Things’ is about connecting everything to the internet, i.e., your regular day-to-day things being connected to the internet and providing access for sharing the information. The devices are connected to the internet through the hardware like sensors and actuators, and making them from simple regular things to be internet accessible, gather information, analyse it, and take action on the basis of that information. 

With the Internet of Things being a hot topic for the scholars to study and research, most of the researchers are conducting the research on this topic for their doctoral degree. While IoT is all about network, device, and data, to make the devices able to communicate to each other. 

Well aware of the fact that, before researching for your PhD, every scholar has to submit the research proposal; depicting the research question, statement, literature review, data collection methodology, analysis & interpretations, results & findings, and conclusion of the whole research. However, to begin with, your proposal in the domain of Internet of Things, start with narrowing down the topic to a specific area of Internet of Things.

Narrowing down to a specific area related to the Internet of Things means to get to a niche of the topic. The researcher will either research on the module of a smart city, smart homes, smart hospital, smart schools, or any other area pertaining to the need of data transmission. When you narrow down the specific field of the research, you are dividing your work and lessening your pressure of working in the domain of IoT. 

After you narrow down the specific area, perform a background study on the concerned topic. The background study will help you find the research gap in the subject and know its literature. When you go through a background study on your topic, you review variously related writings to identify the scope of your research. Examining a number of existing researches will give you the drawbacks of the topic to know where your topic lacks, and where you have to work on. 

Formulate the objectives based on your review. The objective will make your mind clear on the reason behind your research. Thence, you will be more confident with your research and to why is it needed. The need for the study will help you examine how it will benefit on the larger scale. 

Once you are clear about your topic and the objective of your research, decide on a methodology to conduct the research. The methodology will bring advancement in the concerned area with an enhancement to the existing results of the field. The security algorithm and techniques should be identified to conclude the research. While you provide a conclusion to your research with the techniques and algorithms in your mind, jot down the possible drawbacks of your research as well. Since everything has some pros and cons, your research will too, have a few issues and drawbacks. 

Note down the drawbacks of your research as to make sure that it will not hinder your research and hypothesis. Therefore, after identifying all the aspects of your research, you should write it down and present it to your supervisor for further consideration. 

PhD Project on the Internet of Things (IoT) – How to start and work on this research

Just as the name suggests, the Internet of Things is a connectivity of the physical things to the internet and to other connected devices. The ‘thing’ can relatively be anything, from a pen to microwave; from some electrical device to everyday physical objects. The IoT allow objects to be sensed through sensors and be remotely accessible from any corner of the globe. Embedded with technology, these devices can be a part of the internet to communicate and interact over there, while being controlled and monitored remotely from another part of the world. The objects are used to transmit data, using the best possible network to connect them. Howsoever, nowadays, most people prefer the wireless technology to connect to the other device. When the ‘thing’ is augmented with the sensor, the technology becomes smarter with the access of internet in it. 

A survey says that by the year 2030, the world will have more things of the internet, with people relying on the technology. Ever since the technology has taken over the world, it has only been growing and getting powerful among the people. The applications and devices to get connected to the internet are extensive and have multiple categories. 

How does it work? 

Internet of Things connects the devices and objects through the inbuilt sensors in them, integrating the sharing of the data and information with the application in it. The Internet of Things pinpoint precisely the needed information for the person and works smartly as per it, ignoring the rest of the information, which is not useful to the device and the user. The information and the device can detect patterns, make recommendations and suggestions, and detect possible hurdles even before they occur. The sensors detect the patterns to make the necessary changes and communicate with other devices to know about the potential difficulties or changes in the plan. The information picked by the connected devices enables the user to make wise and smart decisions, based on the real-time information. 

The IoT provides the insights into a situation to avoid it and to keep the user satisfied with his schedule. 

How vast is the field?

With devices and systems being connected digitally, they can be controlled from anywhere in the world. As a result of the Internet of  Things, haven’t we seen the new sensory system in air conditioners being operated from another corner of the world? 

Internet of Things is a transformational force that can help companies and industries grow. The companies will improve their performance with the help of IoT in analytics and security. Aided by the interactional and transmission data, IoT will help people be aware of future mishaps to make informed and wise decisions.

How to start and work on this research?

The scope of Internet of Things is very extensive, and thus, numerous researches have been done on in the field. However, researchers are still working on the topic to know all about the future standard of living. But how should a researcher begin his research on a broad topic like this?  

  • Identify the concept and the platform for the research. 

The researcher has to narrow down his idea of researching in the field of IoT. Since any device or application can get connected to another through hardware, and get embedded through a computing system or internet, the researcher has to make a wise decision for it. If your research is about the smart city or smart homes, then the concepts related to the field of smart city or smart home has to be analysed clearly with the availability of the technique and product. The researcher has to examine broadly about the ease of collection of data. 

  • Choose a hardware 

The hardware selection for the Internet of Things deals with the sensors, actuators, etc. The hardware will be the mode of connection for the devices to exchange information. The hardware will help the researcher gain information and collect data through it.  

  • Select the network connection 

The network connection will help the researcher connect the devices and make a data transmission route. The network could be wireless or wired, making a routing process to transfer data from device A to device B. The network connection will make sure to provide the shortest and easiest route to the devices to transmit the data. 

While this is just the beginning process of the research, primary research can be carried out in designing the routing protocol and secure the transmitted data using encryption and algorithm for secured transmission of the data.

How to Analyse and Interpret Data Collected from an In-depth Interview

In-depth interviews are labour-intensive. They cannot finish in one attempt. The process of data analysis starts when you have collected material. However, you still cannot separate the process of gathering data from analysis. In fact, you will start analysing data as you commence an interview. Analysing the data sets off as you hear something from your participants. However, you have to be considerate during this stage as it might contaminate the next part of the interview. 

Tape-recording interviews

For better analysis, you should have words of participants in written form. The primary method to transform spoken words to written text is to transcribe the recorded material. Your consciousness will play a paramount role in the interpretation of data as it must interact with the words of participants. 

Another benefit of tape-recording interviews is you have access to the original data. If something is not clear in a transcript, you can return to the source and check accuracy. Further, you can also avoid the accusation of mishandling data by demonstrating your accountability to data. The tape-recording method also enables you to improve your interview techniques.

Transcribe interview tapes

Transcribing interview tapes is an arduous task and potentially costly too. As a substitute, you should listen to tapes a number of times and then pick up the most important section and transcribe that part only. However, this is not an advisable approach because it may lead to premature judgment about what is essential and what is not. 

How to study and analyse the text

In-depth interviews generate a colossal amount of information. Organised in several stages, these interviews emanate records full of long sentences, words, paragraphs and pages. It is requisite that you pick up information that is most relevant to answer your research questions and meet research objectives. The most crucial thing is that you reduce data by inductive approach rather than deductive approach. 

The first step to reduce the text is to read it and mark with brackets the passages that seem important and interesting. While winnowing the text, you may feel unable to decide on the significant paragraphs. You will feel like falling into the trap of self-delusion. Therefore, you can later check with the participants to see if what they have marked as important seem interesting to participants or not.  

Sharing interview data

Your ultimate goal of marking text as important from a transcript is to shape it in a presentable form. You can use two basic ways to share interview data. First, you can develop profiles of individual participants and group them into categories. Second, you can mark individual passages, group and study them in categories.

There is no right way to craft profiles for sharing interview data. Some researchers present the text in charts and graphs, and some give priority to words more than a graphical representation. Once you have read the transcript, marked passages of interest, and labelled those passages, you will put all those passages in a single transcript. This version may result in one-third of the original interview script. 

The next step is to read the new version and underline paragraphs that are compelling. Be faithful to the words of participants. You may be tempted to introduce some words to make transitions between passages. You can let readers know when words of participants have not been used by using ellipses or brackets around your own text. 

Making and analysing thematic connections

While reading interview transcripts, you can label the text that you find interesting and important in the context of your research questions. Further, you will decide on a word or phrase in which labelled passages can fit. Sometimes, you may find a term from a paragraph itself. Assigning a particular term to each selected paragraph is known as categorising. This entire process is also known as coding. This is essential so that a computer programme can quickly sort and classify interview data. 

Interpreting the material

Interpretation is not a stage that begins at the end of an interview. The interpretation process starts as you ask questions from your participants. Marking interesting passages, labelling them and categorising them is an analytic work that calls for an interpretation. Visit here for detailed information on Data Analysis.

How to Elicit a Research Topic for Your PhD Thesis?

One of the most challenging parts of having your PhD may be the dissertation. After spending hours, weeks, as well as months about the different readings as well as assignments after, you have to publish a PhD proposal once and for all. For numerous students, writing a PhD proposal may be the most difficult part of writing, since it often requires several attempts to choose a feasible topic that is appropriate to their projects.

The more appalling fact is that most PhD students who start with their doctoral studies never received the Ph.D.  A wide variety of reasons is responsible for that; let us have a look at them below.

 If you are a PhD student in a University and have been assigned the task of creating a thesis as a cardinal part of your academic program then there are online professionals ready to offer you very good PhD topic selection help in Bangalore. Yet you must ask yourself a question before embarking on the task. The question to be asked is “whether you are really passionate about researching on your own?” Also, “are you sure about the research topic or have you finalized it already?”

In any case, whether you are sure about the research topic for your PhD or not, the following are some of the important points that will help you to choose an appropriate PhD research topic:

1) First of all, do your best to elicit the ideas for research. For example, if you are a Science student, then you should try to elicit ideas following a scientific approach to discover ideas that are attuned to your research. Make sure you make the best of your efforts before getting in touch with specific authorities and professionals for a broader discussion.   

2) Explore specific websites, books, articles, periodicals, etc. to become familiar with the up-to-the-minute trends and discoveries including the diverse popular research areas. That will help you to ensure whether you are thinking over the concurrent lines. This reading will provide you with an agreeable idea regarding the industry needs and the feasibility of the research. Lastly, the same with also render you with a subtle idea if you prospectively grab a job after you have completed your doctoral studies!!

3) If your PhD research topic is too challenging and you are not able to get hold of hard data or material to study, then your proposal may prove relatively more challenging! That is why it is wise to choose something ‘achievable’

 4) Here comes the high time to share your ideas with peers working in the same domain. And it is worth considering listening to them and following their advice.

 5) Finally, present the topic to your lecturer or advisor if you guess the same is worth researching! You should be aware that choosing the right lecturer or advisor substantially matters in carrying out the research and achieving the PhD in the long run.

6) Last but not least, be as flexible as possible! While conducting the research (both quantitative & qualitative one) changes in certain features may have to be made, as you advance. Agree to the facts and make obligatory changes, as you carry on, rather than experiencing a standstill at the forefront!

Why Thesis & Code?

If you are looking for excellent professional PhD topic selection help in Bangalore, then Thesis & Code is just the ticket for you! Thesis & Code will help you in choosing an appropriate topic and PhD thesis writing service. Please visit our website for complete information.

Why Seek Help With PhD Questionnaire Designing Service For Quantitative Methodology

PhD questionnaire is one of the important parts of your research work. It is one of the basic requirements when you are ready to collect data for your research work. It is considered as a standard tool that a student can apply for all of his subjects in the same manner. This makes it important for the students to include all appropriate and relevant questions in a research questionnaire for quantitative methodology. Students must be sure to the questions in the questionnaire could be applied to any subject. If any question is not valid or irrelevant than it will not be included in the PhD questionnaire.

A formal standardized PhD questionnaire is a tool used to collect data from individuals about themselves, or about a social unit such as a household or a school. PhD questionnaires are usually used in the field of educational planning to gather information about various aspects of educational systems. The best way of collecting various information is by asking people questions – either through oral interviews, or by self-developed and designed questionnaires, or by using some combination of these two methods.

Developing and designing a questionnaire for your research work involves hard work and is time-consuming. It is always better to save your time and efforts and you can do so by seeking a professional PhD Questionnaire Designing Service for quantitative methodology. Students can avail of many dedicated services for designing their data collection tools including questionnaires and surveys. Taking help from professional research experts and statisticians, students can design reliable and valid tools of study. Find out how seeking help from PhD Questionnaire Designing Service can assist you effectively with this critical task.

Getting significant information

PhD Questionnaire Designing Service for quantitative methodology will make sure that your questionnaire is designed including relevant information according to your study objectives. A questionnaire should ultimately help you to answer all your research questions. 

Precision to attain study goals

Accuracy is an important aspect that students should consider while developing a questionnaire. PhD Questionnaire Designing Service makes sure to understand the goals of your study and that will provide the best questionnaire designs in accordance to you.

Open and close-ended questions

PhD Questionnaire Designing Service for quantitative methodology will help students in designing both open-ended and close-ended questions. This mainly depends on how you want to collect your data for your particular research. It may also depend on your particular study type, whether it is qualitative, quantitative, or mixed design research.

Can you write a PhD dissertation in merely 3 months?

It is not new to see a lot of researchers quitting after having struggled hard with their PhD. It isn’t easy to be motivated each morning with the constant stress that comes up with research and its activities, and this can actually take a toll on your personal wellbeing and health. it pushes scholars against the wall and pressurizes them to work no further and just give up.

Let me tell you, if you have it in you, in precisely three months or even lesser, you can bring out your PhD dissertation. You wouldn’t believe it unless you read the tricks to do it:

  • Become seasoned at managing stress: When your nerves wreck, that is the time not to give up. It is rather the time to pick up yourself so that you can put yourself in the right frame of mind to deal with the problem in a better and more efficient manner. By a simple act of not engaging in worthless activities and letting them augment your stress levels, you can actually save your PhD.


  • Give yourself a time phase to work: If you lose your focus from finishing the work in the stipulated time, it may become chaotic for you to handle. Set yourself a timeline. All the better if your supervisor does it for you. Ensure that you do not procrastinate and no further delays creep in with your set deadlines.


  • Be more precise and definite with your decision: After having scheduled up your time frame, you would have to some tough decisions and stick by them. Make yourself tough decisions by deciding to not do multiple things at the same time and vice versa. Your determination would show results, and small achievements would become a gateway to greater accomplishments.


  • Writing should be an exclusive task: Your research should be done before you get onto the task of writing. You must be done with all the preliminary work that is research and your mandatory publications. Never try to do them simultaneously, else you all get jumbled up and lose focus, and it is always easier to write when your fundamentals and raw materials are in place.

I am sure, by now you know that with some determination and consistency in performance. If your focus is at the right place, it isn’t difficult to write your dissertation in as little as three months. Get set and go….!!